(plus Daily Allowance of Rations for Light-keepers working
in the service of the Bell Rock Lighthouse)
I - The Keepers of the Bell Rock Light-house are
hereby instructed and directed to keep the lamps of the
reflecting-apparatus burning bright and clear, from the
going away of day-light in the evening till the return of
day-light in the morning. The better to obtain this purpose,
the period of night is to be divided into Watches, and each
keeper in rotation will mount guard for three hours. The
fountains of the lamps being daily supplied with oil, the
wicks must be frequently trimmed in the course of the night,
but more particularly at the end of each watch.
II - The motion of the machinery of the reflector-frame
must be so regulated, that one of the lights of the natural
appearance, and one of those coloured red, shall be exhibited
to the mariner in their most brilliant effect, in the course
of every four minutes; or the reflector-frame must make
one entire revolution in the space of eight minutes.
III - The keeper on watch will look out for the
occurrence of foggy or snowy weather, and during the continuance
of either, the bells must be kept tolling both day and night.
IV - At the end of each watch, the keeper respectively
on duty must ring the house or bed-room bell, as the case
may be, and thereafter remain at his post until he is relieved
by the keeper in person whose turn it is to mount guard.
V - In the event of any thing getting out of order
about the machinery of the reflector-frame, so as to prevent
its operation, the Lights, and also the Bell-hammers, if
required, must be moved by hand, as nearly to the periodic
time as possible, until the repair of the machine can be
VI - Should the stock of Oil in the Light-house
by any means be reduced to 150 gallons, between the 1st
day of October and the last day of February; or to 50 gallons
between the 1st day of March and the 30th day of September,
the number of lights on each side of the reflector-frame
shall be reduced to three; but in the event of the stock
of Oil being respectively lessened to one-half of the above
quantities, or that any of the other stores essential to
the support of the Light, are getting so low as to endanger
its total failure, only one burner shall be lighted on each
side of the reflector-frame, or four burners in all.
VII - Unless, under these circumstances, a supply
comes to hand, recourse must ultimately be had to the use
of the Wax Candles in store.
VIII - During any period that the stores or provisions
appear to the acting Principal Light-keeper to be in danger
of falling short, or in the event of sickness, or under
any other circumstances considered of a calamitous and hazardous
nature, the signal of distress shall be observed, by ceasing
to hoist the Signal-ball at the stated periods, until the
arrival of the Attending-vessel.
IX - In all cases of difficulty, especially such
as are referred to by the tenor of the Articles VI, VII
and VIII of these Instructions, the acting Principal Light-keeper
shall use his discretion and judgment in lessening the daily
allowance of provisions, water and fuel, according to his
view of the circumstances of the case.
X - No lights of any kind are to be left in such
a situation as to endanger accident by fire. If at any time
it should be found necessary to enter the store-room under
night, the light must be carried in a lantern.
XI - The better to ensure regularity and good order
in the Light-house-duty, it shall be performed in three
distinct departments. The keepers to shift in rotation weekly,
from the performance of one department to another. These
changes are to take place every Saturday-night.
XII - The light-keeper performing the duty of the
first department, shall, in the course of the day, supply
the lamp-fountains with oil, and the burners with cotton;
he shall clean the reflecting-apparatus, and all the utensils
connected with the trimming of the lights. He shall also
take his turn in mounting guard both day and night.
XIII - The day-work of the second department includes
the cleaning of the machinery-case, windows, walls, floors,
and apparatus connected with the light-room, not already
specified as coming under the first department; he shall
likewise clean the balcony and library; the books of which
must be dusted or cleaned on the first Saturday of every
month. The keepers in this department will also take his
turn at day and night watches.
XIV - The third department includes the cleaning
of the bed-room, kitchen, and provision store-room; together
with the passages, stairs, and whole utensils connected
with these apartments. He shall likewise cook the provisions,
and take charge of them from the time of their being served
out, until they are set upon the table in a prepared state.
The keeper acting in this department shall only be subject
to the performance of night-watches.
XV - The acting Principal Light-keeper will mount
guard in his turn by day and night, and do the duty of the
first and second departments, but he is hereby exempted
from personally performing the duty of the third department;
he will, however, serve out the stores, and keep the light-room
store in a cleanly and orderly state.
XVI - The chimney or smoke-tube of the kitchen-range,
and the windows of the several apartments, are to be cleaned
on the last Saturday of every month, or as soon thereafter
as the weather will permit: The performance of which is
to be entered into the Monthly Return.
XVII - The wharfs or cast-iron railways, rope-ladder
(now brazen stair), shall, in like manner, be overhauled
and examined during the period of spring-tides, on the full
and change days of the moon. the condition of these works
to be also regularly entered into the Monthly Returns.
XVIII - The light-keeper on guard is to give immediate
notice to the acting Principal-Keeper of the appearance
of the Tender, or of any other vessel, or boat, which is
seemingly approaching the Rock; when the proper signals
will be made as to the practicability and safety of landing,
and the necessary attendance given; according to the instruction
of the Signal-Book.
XIX - The Keeper on watch between the hours of 9
and 10 in the morning, shall hoist the signal-ball to the
flag-staff-head (if the weather will permit), and, in this
position, allow it to remain during that hour, and when
all is well; but in the event of foggy or stormy
weather, such as shall obstruct the view with the telescope
between the Light-house and the Signal-tower at Arbroath,
the ball shall be hoisted between the hours of 1 and 2 in
the afternoon, should the weather have then improved. These
circumstances are to be stated in the Monthly Returns.
XX - The keepers, in rotation, shall have leave,
and be carried ashore in the Attending-vessel, at such periods
as may best suit the service. When this occurs in regular
succession, each of the four keepers will remain six weeks
at the Light-house, and two weeks at Arbroath with their
XXI - The keeper who for the time being is on leave
at the establishment at Arbroath, will there attend the
duty of the signal-room, from 9 to 10 every morning, and
likewise from 1 to 2 in the afternoon, when, from the state
of the weather, the signals at the Bell Rock cannot be seen
and repeated at the appointed hour in the morning, agreeably
to Article XIX.
XXII - The rotation for leave on shore must be so
regulated, that the turns of the Principal and Principal-assistant
Light-keepers do not immediately or successively follow
XXIII - When at the Light-house, the keepers will
have Rations of provisions and other allowances, as stated
in the annexed Schedule, but while they are on shore they
provide for themselves.
XXIV - In case the Rations served out should not
at any time be used, the same must be returned to the store,
as no provisions of any kind are permitted to be taken away
from the Light-house.
XXV - The Principal Light-keeper, and, in his absence,
the Acting Principal-keeper, is held responsible for the
due performance of the duty of the other keepers; for the
correctness of the Requisitions made for stores; for the
Monthly Returns written by the Assistant or Expectant Light-keepers;
for all Entries made in the store and journal books; for
the regular and properly serving out of the daily allowance
of lightroom stores and provisions; for the regular use
and cleanly state of the bed and table linen; for the good
order of the Light-house furniture, apparatus and appurtenances;
that none of the stores be wasted or embezzled, but that
the strictest economy and careful management be observed,
yet so as to preserve a good and sufficient light.
XXVI - The light-keepers are hereby prohibited from
receiving, bringing, or allowing to be brought to the Light-house,
any spiritous liquors, as private stores. the Acting Principal
Light-keeper is held responsible for the conduct of his
assistants; and the Master of the Tender for the conduct
of his men in this respect.
XXVII - The Bell Rock being the chief station at
which Light-keepers are instructed in their duty for the
service of the Northern Lights, the Principal, or, in his
absence, the Acting-principal Keeper, is directed to superintend
this department, and they are respectively held responsible
for the certificate they may ultimately give as to the qualifications
of Expectant-keepers. Upon production of the certificate
to the Engineer, the light-keepers will be found entitled
to the premium stated in the annexed Schedule of Allowances.
XXVIII - Each Expectant-light-keper is to be resident
for at least six weeks at the Bell Rock. In the course of
this period he is to practise the whole duty performed in
the light-room; to write the Monthly Returns; and carefully
to peruse these Instruction. If, at the end of this period,
he is found qualified, he will receive a certificate to
the following effect: "Bell Rock Light-house,"
(here insert the date.) "These certify, that (here
insert the name,) "has resided" (here insert
the number of) "days at this Light-house; and having
been duly instructed in the whole practice of the Keeper's
duty in the Light-room, he is considered qualified to act
as an Assistant Light-keeper," or is found deficient
in certain points, (here state the case as it may be.)
"witness my hand," (Signature of Principal,
or, in his absence, of the Principal Assistant Light-keeper.)
XXIX - The Inventory of the Light-house apparatus,
books, furniture, and utensils, is to be compared with the
Inventory-book upon the first Friday of the months of May
and November half-yearly, or as soon thereafter as the Principal
and Principal Assistant Light-keepers are both upon the
rock. Any deficiency in the articles of the Inventory-book
is to be stated in the respective Returns for these months.
XXX - It being a rule in the Service of the Commissioners
of the Northern Light-houses, that access to their establishments
shall be free and open to the Public, the keepers are enjoined
to pay attention to Strangers, shewing them every civility
in their power; and, particularly, to afford their aid and
assistance, in cases of Shipwreck; yet so as not to neglect
any thing incumbent upon them, in the proper discharge of
their duty as light-keepers.
XXXI - It is recommended to the light-keepers to
be cleanly in their persons and linens, and proper in their
apparel in general.
XXXII - The Light-keepers are enjoined to assemble
in the Library, for the purpose of reading the Scriptures,
and for Prayers, every Sunday, as 12 o'clock noon, in their
Uniform-dress. This service is to be performed by the Acting
Principal Light-keeper, or Principal Officer of the Board
present. The table is to be covered during this service
with a flag; and, when the weather is moderate, the Light-house
flag is, at the same time, to be hoisted to the mast-head,
and allowed to remain till sunset.
XXXIII - Should any difference of opinion arise
among the Light-keepers about the meaning of these Instructions,
the duty shall in such cases be performed agreeably to the
explanation and orders of the Acting Principal Light-keeper.
In the same manner, in all matters to which these Instructions
may not seem fully to apply, the orders of the Acting Principal
Light-keeper are hereby declared to be binding upon the
XXXIV - In case of neglect of duty on the part of
any of the Assistant-keepers, the Principal shall, according
to the nature of the offence, communicate the circumstances
to the Superintendant Light-keeper, on his first visit,
or immediately by letter to the Engineer, that the offending
party may be reprimanded, put under stoppages, or ultimately
dismissed from the service, as the case may require.
XXXV - These Instructions, with such additional
orders as may be issued from time to time, are to be read
by the officiating Officer, immediately before reading Prayers,
on the first Sunday of the months of May and November.
Edinburgh, 1st August 1823
Engineer to the Commissioners of the Northern Light-houses
SCHEDULE referred to in the XXIII and XXVII Articles
of the INSTRUCTIONS
Daily Allowance per Man, 1lb Beef; 1lb Bread; 2oz Oatmeal;
2oz Barley; 2oz Butter; 3quarts Beer; Vegetables and Salt
no stated allowance; For Tea and other necessaries 4d per
day; For Instructing each Expectant-Light-keeper £2
distributed as follows, viz Principal Light-keeper 15s,
Principal Assistant 10s, each of the two Ordinary Assistants